Combining The Effect Of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Analogue And Growth Hormone Together In Treatment

Me: The point of this post is to show that for children who suffer from idiopathic short stature, precious puberty, and impaired height the use of using a combination of Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue and growth hormone is better than using any of the two types of hormones by themselves. Of course it is interesting to realize that the three studies and articles published are from the same group of researchers. 

From the first study…”Our results suggest that combined therapy with Gn-RH analogues and recombinant GH can improve growth velocity and predicted adult height in girls with central precocious puberty and impaired height prognosis during Gn-RH analogue treatment.” The baseline growth velocity increased from around 3 cm/year to 6.5 cm/year and the final height increased from around 1552 cm to 156 cm.

From the 2nd study…”In conclusion, a gain of 7.9 cm in adult height represents a significant improvement, which justifies the addition of GH for 2-3 yr during the conventional treatment with GnRHa, especially in patients with CPP, and a decrease in GV so marked as to impair PAH, not allowing it to reach even the third centile.” What we seem to see is that the GnRH treatments can slow down growth velocity and bone maturation, which can result in a little bit of extra height but if the growth velocity is lowered too little, then it overrides the effect that decreasing the rate of bone maturation would have. This can be corrected by adding hGH into the treatment to increase the the growth velocity rate but still keeping the effect of the GnRH which slows down the bone maturation.

From the 3rd study…”Our experience suggests that the combination of GH and GnRHa is significantly more effective in improving adult height than GH alone in girls with idiopathic short stature, early or normal onset of puberty, and low PAH well below the third percentile and TH.“.. We see that if you use treatment ot the GnRHa you really get very little increase in final height (only 6 cm) but with the hGH and GnRHa treatment the final height is on average 10 cm larger. This is usually for idiopathic short stature girls who have precious puberty and bone maturation.

From PubMed study link HERE

Acta Paediatr. 1995 Mar;84(3):299-304.

Effect of combined treatment with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue and growth hormone in patients with central precocious puberty who had subnormal growth velocity and impaired height prognosis.

Saggese G, Pasquino AM, Bertelloni S, Baroncelli GI, Battini R, Pucarelli I, Segni M, Franchi G.

Source

Department of Pediatrics, University of Pisa, Italy.

Abstract

Growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I status and response to growth hormone therapy (0.6 IU/kg/week sc, six times a week for 12 months) were evaluated in 12 girls (chronological age 9.4 +/- 1.6 years) suffering from central precocious puberty with growth velocity less than 4 cm/year and no substantial increase or decrease in predicted adult height during gonadotropin releasing hormone Bn-RH) analogue treatment (D-Trp6-LH-RH, 60 micrograms/kg im/28 days). At baseline, large variations were observed in nocturnal growth hormone (GH) means (pathological values stimulated levodopa GH peaks (pathological values (< 10.0 micrograms/l) 28.6%) and serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels. Neither GH-nor IGF-I levels were correlated with growth velocity. During recombinant GH therapy, growth velocity increased significantly (baseline 3.0 +/- 0.9 cm/year; 6 months 6.4 +/- 1.9 cm/year, p < 0.001 versus baseline; 12 months 6.0 +/- 1.3 cm/year, p < 0.0001 versus baseline). There was a significant increase in height SDS for bone age (baseline -1.6 +/- 0.5 SDS; 12 months -1.04 +/- 0.6 SDS; p < 0.002) and in predicted adult height (baseline 152.0 +/- 3.6 cm; 12 months 155.9 +/- 3.4 cm; p < 0.002). Our results suggest that combined therapy with Gn-RH analogues and recombinant GH can improve growth velocity and predicted adult height in girls with central precocious puberty and impaired height prognosis during Gn-RH analogue treatment.

PMID: 7780252   [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]


From PubMed study link HERE

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Feb;84(2):449-52.

Adult height in girls with central precocious puberty treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues and growth hormone.

Pasquino AM, Pucarelli I, Segni M, Matrunola M, Cerroni F.

Source

Pediatric Department, University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.

Erratum in

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999 Jun;84(6):1978. Cerrone F [corrected to Cerroni F].

Abstract

GnRH analogues (GnRHa) represent the treatment of choice in central precocious puberty (CPP), because arresting pubertal development and reducing either growth velocity (GV) or bone maturation (BA) should improve adult height. However, in some patients, GV decrease is so remarkable that it impairs predicted adult height (PAH); and therefore, the addition of GH is suggested. Out of twenty subjects with idiopathic CPP (treated with GnRHa depot-triptorelin, at a dose of 100 microg/kg im every 21 days, for at least 2-3 yr), whose GV fall below the 25th percentile for chronological age, 10 received, in addition to GnRHa, GH at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg x week s.c., 6 days weekly, for 2-4 yr; and 10 matched for BA, chronological age, and duration of GnRHa treatment, who showed the same growth pattern but refused GH treatment, served to evaluate the efficacy of GH addition. No patient showed classical GH deficiency. Both groups discontinued treatment at a comparable BA (mean +/- SEM): 13.2 +/- 0.2 in GnRHa plus GH vs. 13.0 +/- 0.1 yr in the control group. At the conclusion of the study, all the patients had achieved adult height. Adult height was considered to be attained when the growth during the preceding year was less than 1 cm, with a BA of over 15 yr. Patients of the group treated with GH plus GnRHa showed an adult height significantly higher (P < 0.001) than pretreatment PAH (160.6 +/- 1.3 vs. 152.7 +/- 1.7 cm). Target height (TH) was significantly exceeded. The group treated with GnRH alone reached an adult height not significantly higher than pretreatment PAH (157.1 +/- 2.5 vs. 155.5 +/- 1.9 cm). TH was just reached but not significantly exceeded. The gain in centimeters obtained, calculated between pretreatment PAH and final height, was 7.9 +/- 1.1 cm in patients treated with GH combined with GnRHa; whereas in patients treated with GnRHa alone, the gain was just 1.6 +/- 1.2 cm (P = 0.001). Furthermore, no side effects have been observed either on bone age progression or ovarian cyst appearance and the gynecological follow-up in the GH-treated patients (in comparison with those treated with GnRHa alone). In conclusion, a gain of 7.9 cm in adult height represents a significant improvement, which justifies the addition of GH for 2-3 yr during the conventional treatment with GnRHa, especially in patients with CPP, and a decrease in GV so marked as to impair PAH, not allowing it to reach even the third centile.

PMID: 10022399     [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]  Free full text


From PubMed study link HERE

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Feb;85(2):619-22.

Adult height in short normal girls treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs and growth hormone.

Pasquino AM, Pucarelli I, Roggini M, Segni M.

Source
Pediatric Department, University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.

Abstract

Combined treatment with GH and GnRH analogs (GnRHa) has been proposed to improve final adult height in true precocious puberty, GH deficiency, and short normal subjects with early or normal timing of puberty with still controversial results. We treated 12 girls with idiopathic short stature and normal or early puberty with GH and GnRHa and followed them to adult height; 12 girls comparable for auxological and laboratory characteristics treated with GH alone served to better evaluate the efficacy of addition of GnRHa. At the start of combined treatment, the chronological age of the girls (CA; mean +/- SD) was 10.2 +/- 0.9 yr, bone age (BA) was 10.6 +/- 1.9 yr, height SD score for BA was – 1.81 +/- 0.8, PAH was 146.3 +/- 5.0 cm. PAH was significantly lower than target height (TH 152.7 +/- 3.6 cm; P < 0.005). GH was given at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg x week, sc, 6 days weekly, and GnRHa (depot-triptorelin) was given at a dose of 100 microg/kg every 21 days, im. The 12 girls were treated with GH alone at the same dose; at the start of therapy their CA was 10.7 +/- 1.0, BA was 10.1 +/- 1.4 yr, height SD score for BA was – 1.65 +/- 0.8, PAH was 145.6 +/- 4.4 cm, and TH was 155.8 +/- 4.6 cm. Pubertal Tanner stage in both groups was B2P2 or B3P3. LHRH test and pelvic ultrasound showed the beginning of puberty. The GH response to standard provocative tests was 10 g/L or more. The mean period of treatment was 4.6 +/- 1.7 yr in the group treated with GH plus GnRHa and 4.9 +/- 1.4 yr in the group treated with GH alone; both groups discontinued treatment at comparable CA and BA. Adult height was considered to be attained when growth during the preceding year was less than 1 cm, with a BA of over 15 yr. Patients in the group treated with GH plus GnRHa showed an adult height significantly higher (P < 0.001) than the pretreatment PAH (156.3 +/- 5.9 vs. 146.3 +/- 5 cm); the gain in centimeters calculated between pretreatment PAH and adult height was 10 +/- 2.9 cm, and 7 of 12 girls had a gain over 10 cm. Target height was significantly exceeded. Height SD score for BA increased from – 1.81 +/-0.8 to -0.85 +/- 1.0. The GH alone group reached an adult height higher than the pretreatment PAH (151.7 +/- 2.7 vs. 145.6 +/- 4.4 cm); the gain in final height vs. pretreatment PAH was 6.1 +/- 4.4 cm, and 5 of 12 girls did not gain more than 4 cm. TH was even not reached. The height SD score did not significantly change. No adverse effects were observed in either group. All of the girls showed good compliance and were satisfied with the results. Our experience suggests that the combination of GH and GnRHa is significantly more effective in improving adult height than GH alone in girls with idiopathic short stature, early or normal onset of puberty, and low PAH well below the third percentile and TH. As the cost-benefit of such invasive treatment must be seriously considered, further studies are needed due to the small sample of our patients as well as in other studies reported to date.

Comment in

Final adult height in short healthy children treated with growth hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. [J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001]

PMID: 10690865  [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]     Free full text

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