Me: This seems to suggest that we can create these hybrid microspheres which are just basically encapsulations or coatings of some collagenous fibrous material with TGF-Beta1 and/or Chitosan put inside and put it into the intermedullary cavity to get what little stem cells inside to differentiate into chondrocytes since the adult bone marrow is not red but yellow which is fatty acids and anything that is derives from fatty acids.
I have written in another article over the ability of BMP-6 to turn adiposed derived adult stem cells into chondrogenic in phenotype unlike for mesenchymal stem cells. It seems that the winner in this study was the hybrid microsphere with TGF-beta 1 and chitosan inside. This helps me further in deriving a height increase method. I know now that we can create microspheres for injection close to the bone marrow. Personally I would use the TFG-Beta 1 with Chitosan first which has a lesser chondrogenic effect and then added the BMP-6 encapsulations for further chondrogenesis.
From PubMed study link HERE
Cartilage regeneration using adipose-derived stem cells and the controlled-released hybrid microspheres.
Department of orthopaedics, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, West Road Changle, Xi’an, China. email@example.com
This study was to evaluate the effect of hybrid microspheres (MS) composed of gelatin transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta1)-loaded MS and chitosan MS on the enhancement of differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) into chondrocytes in pellet culture in vitro and the reparative capacity of pellet from ASCs and the hybrid MS-TGF used to repair cartilage defects in vivo.
The morphology of the controlled-released MS was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical property was also tested in this study. In vitro TGF-beta1 release was evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The protein expression of Collagen II was tested by Western blot. In addition, a preliminary study on cartilage regeneration was also performed in vivo.
When chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs in both MS was evaluated, the protein expression of Collagen II became significantly increased for the hybrid MS-TGF, as compared with the gelatin MS-TGF. Mechanical result showed that the hybrid MS was superior to the gelatin MS. Observation of histology in vivo demonstrated that the pellet from ASCs and the hybrid MS-TGF promoted cartilage regeneration in the defects of articular cartilage much better than other groups.
Our study demonstrated that the pellet from ASCs and the hybrid MS-TGF can provide an easy and effective way to construct the tissue engineered cartilage in vitro and in vivo.
Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier SAS.
- PMID: 20022784 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]