[Note: This article post will be one of those posts which will be continuously edited upon because of the nature of the information. New information will be added over time to keep the readers up to date on developments.]
This post will be a very long detailed guide on how it is very much possible to reverse the process of periodontal decay. With the information and methods you find on this article, you can save yourself potentially thousands of dollar across a lifetime in terms of dental bills. While the ideas will work, it is always important to realize that I am not a medical professional. If you choose to take this advice, you are held responsible. I am not liable for complications which can result from your application of the advice I am providing. This will be one of the very few, only posts and articles on this entire website which I will add the donate button because I feel that the information you will find from this guide will be very useful later on. If you found this guide was useful in saving you money from the cost of dental bill, give a donation to help out the cause.
Ever since I started to do research on possible ways to increase height, I have come across A LOT of information, techniques, methods, and ideas on how it might be possible, and I mean VERY POSSIBLE, to heal periodontal cavities and possibly even regenerate and regrow entire teeth.
The evidence, the scientific research, and the ideas that are coming out from PubMed articles everyday is overwhelming and I personally can develop and create a few ideas of my own on how to completely reveal teeth with cavity fractures with almost 100% complete confidence. This is NOT science fiction. This is real life, with real science to back up all of my claims.
From this article on Slate.com we can see what the real cost of dentistry is and realize that the cost of dental coverage and services is really high in the US. To get an idea of how much the services cost on average, you can check on this source I found from a North Carolina Public Health website.
Replacing Your Toothpaste With An Alternative
First, let’s see what are the possible ways to stop using the big brands you find at the local supermarket, and I am talking about the Crests, the Colgates, the Sensodynes, and whatever else there are. I know, I know I already wrote up a body hack (#15) which showed how you can replace your store brand toothpaste. The first resource I used is from WikiHow and Networx. We can replace them and use an alternative.
Complete listing of ingredients which people have considered or have been using as a brand name toothpaste alternative. All the ingredients below are linked to Amazon.com
- Diatomaceous Earth – For the scrubbing ability and cleaning effect
- Baking Soda (aka Sodium Bicarbonate) – the gentle cleansing and polishing agent. Has an abrasive property that scrubs the teeth. Non-toxic.
- Hydrogen Peroxide – good for rinsing mouth, removing microbes, and cleaning teeth. Naturally disinfects your mouth and will also help whiten your teeth. If you don’t have it around, use water.
- Calcium Carbonate or Calcium Citrate – for the texture and scraping action
- Xylitol Powder (aka Birch Sugar) – to change taste, acts as a sweetener, , not completely necessary
- Coconut Oil – for texture, might also have anti-fungal properties
- Glycerine – is used as optional sweetener, however will leave a coat or layer of residue that is hard to remove.
- Activated Charcoal – a very good porous material that can wipe and scrub microscopic contaminants
- Salt aka Sodium Chloride (or sea salt) – seems to heal the gums and prevent infection. it can be used as an alternative abrasive than baking soda.
- Finely Ground Pumice – for abrasive scrubbing action
- Apple Cider Vinegar (source HERE)
- Water – is used as other option to Hydrogen Peroxide
- Dried Lemon or Orange Rind – (source HERE)
- Mint, Cinnamon, Orange, Myrrh, Peppermint, Stevia – optional ingredients for flavor
There are many different combinations one can try out, however most people agree that the 2 critical elements are Baking Soda and Hydrogen Peroxide:
1. Salt (sodium chloride) + Tea tree oil (source HERE) – an alternative to tea tree oil is Neem Oil.
These are the other toothpaste alternative replacement combinations:
2. Diatomaceous Earth + Baking Soda + Hydrogen Peroxide (source HERE from Dave Asprey) – you can also add mint for flavor and salt
Many, many people are suggesting to replace the mouth wash and Listerines you find in your local supermarket with Hydrogen Peroxide (which is safe as long as you don’t consume it too much).
Techniques and Methods To Heal Cavities, Reduce Teeth Sensitivity, Reduce Gum Inflammation, and Reduce Plaque
From one of the Bulletproof Executive website/blog forum threads (source HERE) we find the link to a very famous blog on health and diets WholeHealthSource.Com written by Stephan Guyenet. Apparently he has given a talk on TEDx which for me sort of is an informal way to say that you are an expert in the field you are going to lecture about. He also talked about the studies and data coming out that suggest that reversing periodontal decay can be achieved quite easily. Guyenet wrote a post (source HERE) in December 2010 entitled “Dr. Mellanby’s Tooth Decay Reversal Diet”
There was three factors which the article says the Mellanby’s found.
They identified three, which together made the difference between excellent and poor dental health (from Nutrition and Disease):
- The diet’s mineral content, particularly calcium and phosphorus
- The diet’s fat-soluble vitamin content, chiefly vitamin D
- The diet’s content of inhibitors of mineral absorption, primarily physic acid
- 1. Avoid white flour and sugar which is carbohydrates
- 2. Start getting more Vitamin D. Specifically, take a supplement called Vitamin D3.
- 3. Eat more food derived from nature like meat and vegetables.
- 4. Focus on getting proteins,
Here are the findings of Dr. Mellanby…
“The tests do not indicate that in order to prevent dental caries children must live on a cereal-free diet, but in association with the results of the other investigations on animals and children they do indicate that the amount of cereal eaten should be reduced, particularly during infancy and in the earlier years of life, and should be replaced by an increased consumption of milk, eggs, butter, potatoes, and other vegetables. They also indicate that a sufficiency of vitamin D and calcium should be given from birth, and before birth, by supplying a suitable diet to the pregnant mother. The teeth of the children would be well formed and more resistant to dental caries instead of being hypoplastic and badly calcified, as were those in this investigation.”
Of course Guyenet at the very end of the post states very clearly” This diet is capable of reversing early stage tooth decay. It will not reverse advanced decay, which requires professional dental treatment as soon as possible. It is not a substitute for dental care in general, and if you try using diet to reverse your own tooth decay, please do it under the supervision of a dentist.”
From the RawPaleoDiet website…it seems that people who go on a raw vegetation and animal diet (RVAD) may actually get more cavities than people who eat normal western processed food. However if that diet is supplemented with enough Calcium and Magnesium with other minerals you can find in a Centrum pill, it seems that cavities that are just starting out can reverse and heal themselves.
From EarthClinic.com we get another very similar formula which seems to help cure periodontal disease which dentists say is incurable.
What I use and how I use it:
In any kind of sealable container (tupperware, whatever) mix 3/4 baking soda and 1/4 kosher salt or sea salt as long as it’s chunky. shake it around to mix them together, and do so everytime before brushing your teeth. I use a 1/4 measuring spoon to scoop some out and brush my teeth from that as opposed to dipping my toothbrush in the mass mixture. I started with the softest toothbrush possible and as my teeth stopped bleeding etc I upgraded to a mdium bristle toothbrush, never to hard. When you go to brush your teeth, brush all of them, the insides of your cheeks the spaces between your teeth and lips, the roof of your mouth, under your tongue and your tongue itself. (BTW, before brushing I recommend you buy a tongue scraper and scrape your tongue about 15-20 times.) Make sure when brushing your tongue you get as far back as possible. The very back of your tongue where the larger taste buds appear to be, seems to be the biggest nesting grounds for bacteria. You may trigger your gag reflex, but it needs to be brushed! Brush all aspects of your mouth for at least 2 minutes, every morning, after every meal and right before bed for maximum results and maintenance. When you are finished brushing rinse your mouth with water and scrape your tongue a couple more times. MOUTHWASH MIXTURE. I use a mouthwash bottle, And mix 1/2 Hydrogen peroxide %1 (commonly found) and 1/2 water. shake it up before each use. Just swish around and gargle for a decent amount of time, longer the better. What I do is spit about 3/4 of it out and let the rest kinda sit amongst my teeth and gums for a little while longer. Then while the stuff is kinda clinging there I floss, working the peroxide in between my teeth. Then I totally rinse and use the tongue scraper a couple more times. An added bonus is that the mouthwash mixture also noticably whitened my teeth over a period of time. Good Luck, and I hope this helps others! You can also make a toothpaste just by mixing your tooth powder with a little of you mouthwash mixture, I sometimes use that for a tooth whitening treatment.”
To Eliminate Pain and Freshen Breath
Natural Cures: Cloves are used extensively to eliminate tooth pain quickly….Hydrogen peroxide can be an excellent mouth wash to kill bad breath and whiten teeth. Parsley and fennel can be used to freshen breath, and calendula can help eliminate oral infections. An apple can be an effective natural toothbrush, and oil pulling can provide tooth whitening as well as improve overall oral health while preventing dental health issues such as plaque and tartar.
From the same forum thread, we learn further from a poster named Sean that …”I just stopped all grains (especially wheat and oats), and ate lots of butter — along with the usual EFAs, magnesium, extra Vit D & A, et. al.”
Another poster named Armi linked s PubMed study which linked the application of Vitamin K2 and Osteoporosis entitled “Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) effectively prevents fractures and sustains lumbar bone mineral density in osteoporosis.” (source HERE). The conclusion of the study was that “vitamin K2 treatment effectively prevents the occurrence of new fractures” as well as keep the lumbar bone mineral density (LBMD) steady in a 24-month randomized open label study with a total of 241 osteoporotic patients. So main takeaway, Also look into Vitamin K2 supplements.
Another poster named Phammann wrote “After reading a book on reversing tooth decay I started using fermented cod liver oil. Within a week of starting 1/2 tsp a day the pain was gone and has not returned.” – so I guess one can also add fermented cod liver oil into the list of supplements.
Another poster named dogma33 wrote “Adding this vitamin K2 cleaned the calcified krud off the back of my lower front teeth in 2 days! Truly amazing! Now my teeth are smooth and clean all the time. I just brush my teeth once a day — and often I forget to do even that. I’m saving good money without the dentist 2x year.” – Again the utility of Vitamin K2 is raised as a possible way to remove plaque. he continues and adds this useful tidbit “you need good quality Fermented Cod Liver Oil, only made by Green Pastures.” – I guess it is very important to get the right type.
Another poster named Frank says that after taking Vitamin K2 his teeth sensitivity decreased and that a recent dental visit showed very little plaque buildup.
The poster named KittyMcKnitty writes “After a few weeks (maybe three?) of a high-fat diet and K supplementation, the sensitivity is totally gone for the first time in my life.” – so the combination is a high-fat diet with K supplementation
The poster named FlyingPig writes “I found coconut oil to be very useful to get rid of inflammation of my gums. Swish it for 20 minutes for a few days in a row or longer and you’ll see an improvement if you had problems in that area”
Lisa H writes even further evidence that the Bulletproof Executive Diet seems to really help teeth and gum health with “I’m inspired….decision made, save my £500 that I was due to spend on 2 hours of having corsadyl injected into my gums and instead, treat myself using all the things listed above.“…and “After 6 weeks on BP my gums are tight, no more pockets, no more tooth sensitivity. I’m so excited to be able to tell my dentist I will no longer need the very expensive treatment he told me was necessary or my teeth would fall out within the next 2 years. I bought some green fermented cod liver oil a week ago and the results have been instant.”
We find that Borax has been shown to possibly heal bones too. From the website…
- Firstly, dissolve a lightly rounded teaspoonful (5-6 grams) of borax in 1 litre of good quality water free of chlorine and fluoride. This is your concentrated solution. Keep the bottle out of reach of small children.
- · Standard dose = 1 teaspoon (5 ml) of concentrate. This has 25 to 30 mg of borax and provides about 3 mg of boron. Take 1 dose per day mixed with drink or food. If that feels right then take a second dose with another meal. If there is no specific health problem or as a maintenance dose you may continue indefinitely with 1 or 2 doses daily.
- If you do have a problem, such as arthritis, osteoporosis and related conditions, menopause, stiffness due to advancing years, and also to improve low sex hormone production, increase intake to 3 or more spaced-out standard doses for several months or longer until you feel that your problem has sufficiently improved. Then drop back to 1 or 2 doses per day.
- If you want to try the higher doses recommended by Earth Clinic for treating Candida and removing fluoride from the body – using your bottle of concentrated solution – then use:
- · Lower dose for low to normal weight – 100 ml (= 1/8 teaspoon of borax powder); drink spaced out during the day.
- · Higher dose for heavier individuals – 200 ml (= 1/4 teaspoon of borax powder); drink spaced out during the day.
- Always start with a standard dose and increase gradually to the intended maximum. Take the maximum amounts for 4 or 5 days a week as long as required.
- Borax is rather alkaline and in higher concentrations has a soapy taste. You may disguise this with lemon juice, vinegar or ascorbic acid. Keep the bottle with the concentrated solution out of reach of small children.
- Borax and boric acid have been classified as reproductive poisons in Europe, and since December 2010 are no longer available to the public within the EU.
- Presently, borax is still available in Switzerland (15), but shipment to Germany is not permitted. In Germany a small amount (20 – 50 grams) may be ordered through a pharmacy as ant poison (it will be registered).
- Boron tablets can be bought from health shops or the Internet, commonly with 3 mg of boron. These contain tightly bound boron not present in ionic form as with borax or boric acid. While suitable as a general boron supplement, I do not expect them to work against Candida and mycoplasmas, or as a quick arthritis, osteoporosis or menopause cure. Most scientific studies and individual experiences were with borax or boric acid. To improve effectiveness, I recommend 3 or more spaced-out boron tablets daily for an extended period combined with sufficient magnesium and a suitable antimicrobial program (16).
Until 48 hours ago, I had not seen a dentist for any reason in over 6 years. I have completely avoided fluoride toothpaste for about 4 years, and have avoided water containing fluoride as often as possible during that same span of time. According to the dentist, I do not have a single cavity. I drink coffee almost every day for going on two and a half years now. My teeth are significantly whiter than average. Apparently my gums are lightly inflamed. According to the scale presented at the dentist’s office, I am dead center average with this. A regular cleaning should “fix” this, but I question whether the inflammation actually means anything. I’ve taken about 5,000 IU of Vitamin D3 every day for over 2 years. I started taking a daily supplement of Vitamin K2 about 2 months ago. I continue to eat plenty of grass fed dairy, especially butter. I brush once daily. Rarely twice. I always use fluoride free toothpaste with a bit of baking soda sprinkled on. I floss 3-4 times a week. I’m beginning to think the “trick” is to floss your teeth aggressively, while being very gentle on the gums themselves. I often use a “natural” mouth wash, that I always water down with 1 part water, and often 1 often part hydrogen peroxide. I do this after flossing and before brushing. I never eat gluten grains. I rarely eat non-gluten containing grains. My total carbohydrate intake ranges from 10-100 grams per day. I drink almost nothing but water, coffee, tea, raw grass fed milk, and the occasional glass of grapefruit juice. Seeing a dentist yearly may not be a bad idea, but it may also be unnecessary. Fluoride is definitely unnecessary, and is likely harmful.
Other Techniques And Methods
From Discovery News …we have a type of gel which contains monocyte stimulating hormones.
A new peptide, embedded in a soft gel or a thin, flexible film and placed next to a cavity, encourages cells inside teeth to regenerate in about a month, according to a new study in the journal ACS Nano. This technology is the first of its kind….The new gel or thin film could eliminate the need to fill painful cavities or drill deep into the root canal of an infected tooth…The new research could make a trip to the dentist’s office more pleasant, said Berkirane-Jessel. Instead of a drill, a quick dab of gel or a thin film against an infected tooth could heal teeth from within….The gel or thin film contains a peptide known as MSH, or melanocyte-stimulating hormone
From GizMag …we seem to have another peptide based fluid called P 11-4
“…a peptide known as P 11-4 that will assemble into fibers under certain conditions. When applied to a tooth, the fluid seeps into the micro-pores that form when the acid produced by bacteria in plaque dissolves the mineral in the teeth…once inside the micro-pores the peptide-based fluid spontaneously forms a gel that provides a “scaffold” that attracts calcium and regenerates the tooth’s mineral from within to provide natural and pain-free repair of the damaged tooth… this small trial have shown that P 11-4 can indeed reverse damage and successfully regenerate the tooth tissue.”
From GizMag (again)… we have another type of resin technology which can fill cavity holes.
…a cavity infiltration system called Icon, that allows dentists to treat no-longer-small cavities before drilling becomes necessary.
The whole procedure takes only 15 minutes. The tooth is first isolated with a rubber dam, and treated with a gel that etches the enamel and opens up the pores of the cavity. Next the tooth is rinsed, dried with ethanol and air, the Icon infiltrant resin is applied, and then light-cured. The application of a second layer of infiltrant is recommended. Since the resin takes on the color of the surrounding enamel, it doesn’t stand out visually. The procedure is said to be painless, and doesn’t involve the removal of healthy tooth structure.
From SingularityHUB … we have stem cells with polymer scaffolds which turn into complete teeth to be replanted or regrown.
“…approach is to extract stem cells from oral tissue, such as inside a tooth itself, or from bone marrow. After being harvested, the cells are mounted to a polymer scaffold in the shape of the desired tooth. The polymer is the same material used in bioreabsorable sutures, so the scaffold eventually dissolves away. Teeth can be grown separately then inserted into a patient’s mouth or the stem cells can be grown within the mouth reaching a full-sized tooth within a few months.”
Me: What is fascinating from this article was this quote, “Dentists are at the front line of the increased demand for perfect teeth. A 2009 nationwide survey by NSU revealed that 96% of the dentists polled expected stem cell regeneration to dominate the future of dentistry. Additionally, more than half predicted that the technology would be available within the next decade.”
From ScienceDaily this group of scientists have figured out the gene that can cause teeth to continuously grow throughout one’s life.
From another ScienceDaily article scientists have figured out how to attach lost tooth back on with stem cells.
From ABC News a group of Japanese scientists have completely grown an entire fully functional teeth from a stem implant inside collagen.
From PRWeb we have scientists like Dr. Sharpe, the the Dickinson Professor of Craniofacial Biology and head of the Department of Craniofacial Development at the Dental Institute, King’s College London, who says “In the future we envision a patient who loses a tooth and wants a replacement will be able to choose between current methods and a biological-based implant—a new natural tooth—derived from the patient’s own dental stem cells.”
I really do believe that in 10-20 years, almost all of our teeth problems related to teeth loss, teeth breaking, and teeth fractures will solved.
We can see that the LIPUS technology can do almost anything desired. The main limiting factor seems to be that you need live roots to work with the bone.
From the wikipedia link…
Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a medical technology, generally using 1.5 MHz frequency pulses, with a pulse width of 200 μs, repeated at 1 kHz, at an intensity of 30 mW/cm2, 20 minutes/day.
Applications of LIPUS include:
- Promoting bone-fracture healing.
- Treating orthodontically induced root resorption.
- Regrow missing teeth.
- Enhancing mandibular growth in children with hemifacial microsomia.
- Promoting healing in various soft tissues such as cartilage, inter vertebral disc.
- Improving muscle healing after laceration injury.
Researchers at the University of Alberta have used LIPUS to gently massage teeth roots and jawbones to cause growth or regrowth, and have grown new teeth in rabbits after lower jaw surgical lengthening (Distraction osteogenesis) (American Journal of Orthodontics, 2002). As of June 2006, a larger device has been licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Health Canada for use by orthopedic surgeons. A smaller device that fits on braces has also been developed but is still in the investigational stage and is not available to the public.
It has not yet been approved by either Canadian or American regulatory bodies and a market-ready model is currently being prepared. LIPUS is expected to be commercially available before the end of 2012. The LIPUS foundation website currently announces that Lipus-Plasma application units are available for rental in the USA.
From this Topix link HERE you can see that people who have traveled out of the US have had entire teeth parts regrown back after a few months.
From the Xenophilia blog…
Although the technology is not going to be in your local dental office for a few years, I believe we don’t have to wait for it and apply the common sense to do the whole process ourselves. First, we need a low frequency ultrasound source and from all the legally (you can’t buy a real ultrasound machine unless you are a doctor) available sources two come to mind.
First is a Novasonic Massager that can generate a sound vibration of 20,000 Hertz. It is not your regular massager and all you have to do is slightly touch the skin and you can feel the sound waves go deep within your body. I have one myself and love using it.
Second device is more sophisticated and you can find them selling on Ebay. The link searches for the Ebay results for “ultrasound massager” and you will see a bunch of them selling from $100 to $150. They are much more powerful then a Novasonic model and can generate up to 3-5 mHz frequency, so be very careful when using one. You should get one that generates only 1-2 mHz, as 3-5 mHz vibrations don’t go very far – about 1/8″-1/4″ deep.
So, what I do is I apply the sound waves from the device to my teeth and gums for a few minutes every day and get a gentle but thorough massage this way.
My Proposed Technique
I wanted to propose using both a combination of BMP-2 injections (specifically human recombinant BMP aka rhBMP-2) along with LIPUS technology to stimulate and achieve almost every form of tooth regeneration and fracture healing. As long as the rooth is available, the tooth can be saved and regrown back to it’s original form. PubMed studies 1-2 all show that even one round of rhBMP-2 injection can help stimulate cementogenesis and periodontal regeneration. It also increased cell recruitment by increasing proliferation and migration of cells in the surrounding bone area.
Study #5 showed that instead of using BMPs, we can instead use the progenitor mesenchymal stem cells with LIPUS to heal fractures and cavities if we desired. It would basically be just a stem cell implant.
We find from study #6 that “LIPUS accelerates clinical fracture healing of delayed unions of the fibula by increasing osteoid thickness, mineral apposition rate, and bone volume, indicating increased osteoblast activity, at the front of new bony callus formation”
From PubMed study #1 link HERE…
Effect of two delivery systems for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 on periodontal regeneration in vivo.
Department of Periodontology, St Bartholomew’s & The Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, UK.
Resorbable collagen membranes for guided tissue regeneration in periodontal therapy have shown promise but are not osteoinductive. As recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is known to have an affinity for collagen, the use of this osteoinductive agent incorporated into a collagen vehicle may act as a suitable carrier to promote periodontal regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two different collagen delivery systems for rhBMP-2 in rat periodontal fenestration defects. Using the collagen membrane delivery system, 3 groups of adult Wistar rats which had surgical defects created on the right side of the mandible involving the removal of bone and exposure of the molar roots were treated with either rhBMP-2 in colagen membrane (BMPm) (n = 12 animals), or collagen membrane only (COLm) (n = 12), or were left untreated (UN) (n = 14). Using the collagen gel delivery system, surgical defects were treated with either rhBMP-2 incorporated in a collagen gel carrier (BMPg) (n = 5) or had collagen gel only (COLg) (n = 6). Animals were killed 10 d postoperatively and tissues processed for histology. New bone formation was significantly greater in BMPg compared with both BMPm and controls (p < 0.05). However, new cementum formation was significantly greater in BMPm (721 +/- 166 micron2, mean +/- SE) compared with COLm, COLg and UN (p < 0.02) (190 +/- 44 micron2, 327 +/- 114 micron2 and 172 +/- 33 micron2, respectively) and more than 1.5 times BMPg (451 +/- 158 micron2). In conclusion, both carrier systems for rhBMP-2 significantly increased new bone formation compared with controls during the early stages of periodontal wound healing. However, the more slowly dissolving collagen membrane carrier system for rhBMP-2 produced significantly greater new cementum compared with the collagen gel carrier, suggesting that a more prolonged exposure of rhBMP-2 is required to increased cementogenesis.
- PMID: 9689618 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed study #2 link HERE…
The importance of drug delivery to optimize the effects of bone morphogenetic proteins during periodontal regeneration.
University of Texas Health Science Center, Department of Periodontics, Dental School-MSC, San Antonio 78229-3900, USA. G.N.King@mds.qmw.ac.uk
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) include a large number of proteins belonging to the TGF-beta superfamily which are characterized by their ability to induce bone and cartilage formation. Since the isolation and purification of BMPs by recombinant technology, the effects of single BMPs can now be evaluated in animal models. Subcutanous placement of a single recombinant BMP, such as recombinant human (rh) BMP-2, in a rat ectopic assay shows recruitment of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, cartilage formation, followed by replacement with bone, formation of its own bone marrow and physiological bone remodelling. The therapeutic use of recombinant BMPs in the treatment of periodontal disease (destruction of the tooth ligaments, surrounding bone and tooth cementum, the latter of which anchors the ligaments to the tooth surface from the adjacent tooth socket) has attracted considerable interest due to their potent ability to stimulate intramembranous bone formation without an endochondral intermediate. Their predictability in stimulating new bone may provide an alternative that has greater osteogenic potential than autogenous bone, other growth factors and bone substitutes. The biological processes and the potential role of growth factors involved in promoting regeneration are complicated by the involvement of different cell types each with their different growth rates and responses to various stimuli. The major cell types involved in periodontal regeneration include osteoblasts, cementoblasts and fibroblasts. Here, the formation of the new mineralized layers on the tooth and bone surfaces by cementoblasts and osteoblasts respectively are a prerequisite before periodontal ligament formation and attachment by fibroblasts can occur. In this regard, BMPs are likely candidates to stimulate periodontal regeneration because of their ability not only to promote osteogenesis but also to stimulate cementogenesis (new cementum formation). However, understanding when to manipulate each of the various cells differentiation pathway with the application of single or multiple doses of BMPs at the appropriate concentration is dependent upon a suitable delivery system that can be modified in order to optimize its effect during periodontal wound healing. Furthermore, treatment of intrabony periodontal defects with BMPs are likely to not only require appropriate temporal release of the agent, but also adaptation of a carrier that is robust enough to maintain its integrity around the coronal aspect of the root in order to provide space maintenance and support the mucoperiosteal flap. This review evaluates the effects of different delivery systems upon BMP-induced periodontal regeneration.
- PMID: 11480418 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed study #3 link HERE…
Bone morphogenetic protein-2 stimulates cell recruitment and cementogenesis during early wound healing.
Department of Periodontics, Dental School University of Texas, San Antonio 78229-3900, USA.
The unique action of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) on mineralised tissue formation indicates that BMPs are good candidates for use in stimulating periodontal regeneration. Relatively little is known about the mechanisms of actions of BMPs during periodontal regeneration, although recent evidence from our laboratory suggests that the effects of BMPs may be profoundly influenced by various factors including root surface conditioning, delivery systems and masticatory forces.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rhBMP-2 on cell recruitment during periodontal regeneration using a pulse-chase technique where cells are labelled with a thymidine analogue (BrdU) (pulse) and the migration of their progeny is followed (chase) during early wound healing. The relationship between the rhBMP-2 influence on cell recruitment from the periodontal ligament (PDL) and its ability to stimulate cementogenesis was also evaluated.
The buccal aspect of the distal root of the first molar was denuded of its PDL, cementum and superficial dentine through a bony window created in the mandible of 64 Wistar rats under general anaesthesia. Test animals were treated with 10 microL of 500 microg/ml rhBMP-2 in a collagen membrane sponge (n=32) and control defects received 10 microl of saline in a collagen sponge (n=32). All animals received an intraperitoneal single pulse injection of 40 mg/kg BrdU label 2 days postoperatively. Groups of test and control animals (n=8) were killed 2 hours later on day 2 and at 4, 7 and 10 days postoperatively. Mandibles were processed for histological examination.
The results show that rhBMP-2 had a profound effect on proliferation and migration of cells in the adjacent and deeper aspects of the PDL at 7 and 10 days post periodontal wounding (p<0.05). Significantly greater new cementum formation occurred in the test group at 10 days (p=0.03).
This study shows that following periodontal wounding rhBMP-2 stimulates cell recruitment by increasing proliferation and migration of cells from the adjacent unwounded PDL into the wounded area, thus promoting periodontal regeneration by increasing new cementum formation.
- PMID: 11350511 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed study #4 link HERE…
Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 promotes wound healing in rat periodontal fenestration defects.
Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Clinical Dentistry, St Bartholomew’s & The Royal London School of Medicine & Dentistry, United Kingdom.
Although there is considerable interest in the use of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) to promote periodontal regeneration, little is known of its effects on the early stages of wound healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) on an early stage of post-operative wound healing and following complete healing (10 and 38 days, respectively) in a rat model of periodontal regeneration. The buccal aspects of molar roots were carefully denuded of their periodontal ligament through a bony window created in the mandibles of Wistar rats under general anesthesia. After the root surfaces were acid-conditioned, a 10-microL quantity of 50 microg/mL rhBMP-2 in a collagen gel solution was placed into the surgically created defect in test animals; in controls, either a 10-microL quantity of only collagen gel was received, or the defect was untreated. Animals were killed 10 days or 38 days after surgery and the tissues processed for histological examination. Transverse 5-microm sections were stained for the identification of new bone, cementum, and collagen fiber formation. In the 10-day study groups, new bone formation over the second molar and beyond the defect was significantly increased in the test group (p < 0.02), although there was no evidence of increased ankylosis. RhBMP-2 stimulated more than twice the area of cementum growth coronally compared with controls (712 +/- 286 microm2 and 258 +/- 57 microm2, respectively). Connective tissue attachment, including the number and width of collagen bundles, was similar in both test and controls. Complete healing without any evidence of ankylosis had occurred in all animals 38 days post-operatively, and no significant differences were observed between test and control groups. In conclusion, a single dose of rhBMP-2 increased the rate of normal intramembranous bone formation and selectively enhanced cementum formation coronally during early wound healing. However, the finding that rhBMP-2 induced bone formation at some distance from the defect suggests the importance of developing a suitable delivery system to maintain the concentration of BMP-2 at the site of implantation for potential therapeutic use.
- PMID: 9240382 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
From PubMed study #5 link HERE
Applications of Exogenous Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Enhance Fracture Healing in Rat Model.
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, China; Translational Medicine Research and Development Center, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address: email@example.com.
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of combined treatment of exogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on fracture healing by comparing LIPUS-MSC, MSC and control (CTL) groups. Radiography and quantitative callus width/area demonstrated that the MSC-LIPUS group had the best healing, MSC group the second and CTL group the poorest with significant differences among each at different time points. Micro-CT data supported that MSC-LIPUS had the highest bone volume/tissue volume. Histomorphometry showed a significantly faster remodeling in late phase in MSC-LIPUS and MSC groups. These indicated that the combined treatment of MSCs and LIPUS was beneficial to fracture healing. Regenerative power and homing ability of MSCs were shown by promotion in fracture healing and locally found green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled MSCs at fracture calluses. This evidence reflects that co-treatment of MSCs and LIPUS may be developed as an intervention for delayed union or nonunion.
Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- PMID: 23062370 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
From PubMed study #6 link HERE…
Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound increases bone volume, osteoid thickness and mineral apposition rate in the area of fracture healing in patients with a delayed union of the osteotomized fibula.
Department of Oral Cell Biology, ACTA-Universiteit van Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit, Research Institute MOVE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) accelerates impaired fracture healing, but the exact mechanism is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate how LIPUS affects bone healing at the tissue level in patients with a delayed union of the osteotomized fibula, by using histology and histomorphometric analysis to determine bone formation and bone resorption parameters.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Biopsies were obtained from 13 patients (9 female, 4 male; age 42-63) with a delayed union of the osteotomized fibula after a high tibial osteotomy, treated for 2-4 months with or without LIPUS in a randomized prospective double-blind placebo-controlled trial. In the histological sections of the delayed union biopsies, 3 areas of interest were distinguished, i.e. 1) area of new bone formation at the fracture ends, 2) area of cancellous bone, and 3) area of cortical bone. Histomorphometrical analysis was performed to determine bone formation and bone resorption parameters (as well as angiogenesis).
In LIPUS-treated delayed unions, endosteal callus formation by direct bone formation without a cartilage intermediate as well as indirect bone formation was observed, while in untreated controls only indirect bone formation was observed. In the area of new bone formation, LIPUSsignificantly increased osteoid thickness by 47%, mineral apposition rate by 27%, and bone volume by 33%. No increase in the number of blood vessels was seen in the newly formed bony callus. In the area of cancellous bone, bone volume was significantly increased by 17% whereas no effect on osteoid thickness and mineral apposition rate was seen. LIPUS did not affect osteoid volume, osteoid maturation time, number of osteocytes, osteocyte lacunae, or osteoclast-like cells in any of the areas of interest.
Our results suggest that LIPUS accelerates clinical fracture healing of delayed unions of the fibula by increasing osteoid thickness, mineral apposition rate, and bone volume, indicating increased osteoblast activity, at the front of new bony callus formation. Improved stability and/or increased blood flow, but probably not increased angiogenesis, might explain the differences in ossification modes between LIPUS-treated delayed unions and untreated controls.
- PMID: 18538648 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]