One of the biggest and most futuristic theories going around about the possible ways to increase our height has been the idea of using gene therapy through dna manipulation to allow for height increase. Here is what I can derive from the technology
The basic idea behind why we stop growing is that the growth plates seal from the human going through the natural process of aging, or senescence. At a certain stage in its physical maturation, somehow estrogen gets activated to start Puberty and after a certain amount of time after puberty starts, estrogen is used to signal again to start closing the growth plates. Well, it turns out the growth plates also go through a sort of senescence where over time in a human’s life, the layer of hyaline cartilage grows thinner and thinner, until one day the plate disappears.
With gene therapy, we can theoretically inject something on or in the bones and get the stem cells inside the medullary cavity to start to differentiate into chondrogenesis.
We can inject stem cells into a human beings in either a certain area and get that area to reverse in its senescence. We can change genes in the adult humans to push their physical maturity back in development to before puberty so that their bones can reverse into cartilage and they can go through another process of growth.
Harald of the Human Growth Research Initiative talks about the possibilities of using gene therapy for height increase HERE.
As for the use of gene therapy on adults it is still hard to get the technology to work correctly to be able to get either the entire body or certain body parts to reverse in aging or change in form and function to allow for height increase.
The big thing will be really for babies, and children. With gene therapy, potential parents who are short can ask a geneticist to change the genes in their future baby to allow them to get the tall genes (through gene exchange and dna splicing) and give them an edge in life from being tall. This type of thing was addressed in the movie Gattaca, and if I was to be realistic, it is a serious thing to consider. If I was to know that my future children was going to be short, I would personally be willing to use genetic engineering to fix them and give them as many extra inches to their height as possible so they will be not be disadvantaged in life.